Friday, November 20, 2009

Thursday, November 19, 2009

History of Anthrax

The scientific name for Anthrax is Bacillus anthracis .Anthrax is a disease that mammals and some birds get. Humans usually get these diseases indirectly or directly from infected animals, work related exposure to the disease or contaminated animal products. You can’t transfer this disease person to person. The people who are in risk of getting anthrax are farmers, veterinarians, and tannery and wool workers. There are three primary anthraxes: Cutaneous anthrax this happens when anthrax touches cut or scrape on the skin. Symptoms for Cutaneous anthrax are blisters that will form into a black scab. Inhalation anthrax happens when anthrax spore enters your lung. Gastrointestinal anthrax this will affect your mouth, esophagus, intestines, and colon. This infection can spread through your bloodstream which can cause a death.Anthrax is used as a biological weapon or can be use for bioterrorism. Bioterrorism was active in 2001 when US postal service was infected and 22 peoples had anthrax and 7 people survived. The cause of death was confirmed, that it was cutaneous anthrax disease. People believe that 17 nations have biological weapons and its unknown how many countries are using anthrax as a bio weapon. In 1800s scientists were learning about anthrax and they learned that it emerged in world war one. If you have anthrax and there isn’t any symptom you could use antibiotics like ciprofloxacin penicillin, or doxycycline it stops the anthrax from spreading.

Anthrax Timeline



Anthrax is caused by an organism called Bacillus anthracis.In some parts of the world Bacillus anthracis is found in cattle or other mammals. It is found in Western Europe and the US, and is most likely to be found in animals in south and Central America, south and east Europe, Asia and Africa. These bacteria can turn into spores than can easily contaminate meat, breathed in or infect the skin directly through human to animal contact.

Mode of Transmission

The most common anthrax is the cutaneous anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax infection occurs when someone is in contact with tissues of animals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs and others) dying of the diseases. This happens when the animals get bitten by flies and then the flies go and bit other animals that will spread the disease in the animal kingdom. People can get infected when you use the contaminated products that may be made from the carrier animal. Some of these contaminated products are hair, wool, hides or products made from them, such as drums, brushes or rugs. You will also get infected when you get in contact with soil that is associated with the infected animals. Inhalation anthrax occurs when an individual inhale spores in risky industrial processes such as tanning hides and processing wool or bone where aerosols of anthracis spores are produced. Gastrointestinal anthrax occurs when you eat contaminated undercooked meat, bone meal or other feeds and among wildlife feeding on carcasses that is infected with anthrax. Sometimes people who work in laboratory get infected accidentally.


The incubation period is really short because after the contact with the anthrax and start of the symptoms it will take one to five days for the individual to feel the effects. As I mentioned before there are three forms of diseases caused by anthrax and they are cutaneous anthrax, inhalation anthrax, and gastrointestinal anthrax. Each of this anthrax has different symptoms. The symptoms of cutaneous anthrax are muscle aches and pain, headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness should resolve in six weeks but you can die if you don’t receive the proper antibodies. The first symptom for inhalation anthrax is subtle, gradual and flu. In few days this can turn into deadly symptoms and this can cause shock, coma or death. Gastrointestinal anthrax is caused by eating undercooked, contaminated meat. The symptoms for gastrointestinal anthrax nausea, loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea and fever followed by abdominal pain.